GFRY: Selected Annotated Bibliography (from early research)
1. IDEO. Toolkit for Human Centered Design. Palo Alto: IDEO, 2009. Print.
Frame the problem. This toolkit provides a framework to identify and design around user needs with interdisciplinary teams. It “offers techniques, methods, tips, and worksheets to guide us through a process that gives voice to our constituents and allows their desires to guide the creation and implementation of solutions.” It is a potential roadmap for research during Fall and early Spring.
2. Hewitt, Kenneth. “Seismic Risk and Mountain Environments: The Role of Surface Conditions in Earthquake Disaster.” Mountain Research and Development 3.1 (1983): 27-44. Print.
Understand the risk. Hewitt examines the extent to which earthquake damage depends on site location. He explains why the largest earthquakes occur in mountainous and coastal areas with the greatest damage at mountain basins. Each successive earthquake reinforces established patterns of landsliding. Risk can be mitigated by appropriate zoning.
3. Tierney, Kathleen, Christine Beve, and Erica Kugligowski. “Metaphors Matter: Disaster Myths, Media Frames, and Their Consequence in Hurricane Katrina.” American Academy of Political and Social Science March (2006): 57-81. Print.
Dispel myths. Tierney explains how myths promulgated by the media of post-catastrophe lawlessness and social breakdown hurt relief efforts for Hurricane Katrina. Those who feared looters ignored evacuation orders to their detriment. In turn, the government response focused on restoring order through military action rather than searching for and rescuing survivors. These myths are counterproductive, as empirical data demonstrates that community cohesiveness grows in the face of disaster. How can we dispel media myths and organize a positive community response?
4. Priya, Kumar R. “Post-Quake Recovery in Urban Kachchh.” Economic and Political Weekly 39.38 (2004): 4229-231. Print.
Develop empathy. Socioeconomic changes in Kachchh after the 2002 Gujarat earthquake have had a negative impact on survivors. An ethnographic study conducted 1, 2, and 3 years post-EQ demonstrated that, while the boundaries of caste and class were ignored immediately following the quake – with everyone pitching in to help immediate relief efforts – the government’s poor management of relief materials led to a community divide. Year later, survivors still struggle to reconcile their experiences with their ethics because socioeconomic changes impeded the process of cognitive appraisal and acceptance.
5. Belk, Russell W. “Possessions and the Extended Self.” Journal of Consumer Research 15 (1988): 139-60. Print.
Design objects. Part of the tragedy in a post-disaster community is the loss of artifacts by which survivors identify themselves. Belk discusses how objects contribute to identity formation across cultures, which provides a framework for reconstruction. One risk that Belk discusses is the “lessening of self” that prisons, the military, and monasteries push by taking away the personal possessions of inductees and replacing them with uniforms. While post-disaster kits may require mass production for cost efficiency, can we consider solutions that encourage recipients to personalize and thus reclaim their identity?